AGV

4 Types of AGV (Automated Guided Vehicles) Navigation Systems

By June 3, 2021No Comments

Types of AGV (Automated Guided Vehicles)

 

Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) also are recognised through different names including LGV (Laser-Guided Vehicle), Mobile Robots, SGV (Self-Guided Vehicle), Guided Carts, Autonomous Vehicles, and Driverless Vehicles.

Regardless of the AGV type (forklift, tow tractor, cart, etc), the AGV calls for an Automated Guidance System that drives the AGV and informs the AGV Management System approximately the AGV positioning.

Vehicles and navigation systems are advancing day after day. Mobile robots are achieving extraordinary overall performance degrees which might be redefining many industries, and there are numerous AGV programs such ecommerce, warehouses, hospitals, etc; in which AGVs are bringing new excellence performance.

What are the main AGV Navigation Systems? AGV Navigation Technologies are Laser Guided Navigation, Magnetic Navigation, Natural Feature or Free navigation (including SLAM Navigation with LiDAR Sensors), Magnetic spot navigation, inductive wire navigation, optical navigation, vision navigation.

Choosing the proper car steering generation is crucial as it will have an effect on the Automated Guided Vehicle System’s overall performance. AGV overall performance is complicated and relies upon many key elements.

So let’s find out on how does an Automated Guided Vehicle navigate!

 

What are most popular AGV navigation methods?

The most common AGV navigation systems are:

  • Laser-guided navigation (LGV)
  • Magnetic navigation
  • AGV with Natural navigation (SLAM or LiDAR NAVIGATION)
  • Magnetic spot navigation
  • Wire navigation
  • Optical Navigation
  • Vision Navigation

Laser Guided Navigation. What is an LGV Robot?

An LGV or Laser Guided Vehicle is an AGV that navigates with a laser positioning machine. One of maximum famous navigation structures is known as Laser Navigation, for this reason LGV for laser guided cars.

So, an LGV is an Automated Guided Vehicle that makes use of a laser navigation machine.

What is the distinction among AGV and LGV?

There isn’t anyt any distinction due to the fact a LGV is an AGV with Laser Navigation. Thus, LGVs are a selected sort of AGV.

What Types of AGV carry out Laser Guided Navigation?

Laser navigation is extensively utilized in Automatic Forklift trucks, utilized in warehouse and stocking programs.

Factory automation with agv laser robotic arm transportation

Factory automation with agv laser robotic arm

How does Laser Guided AGV work?

Each Laser Guided Vehicle is  is ready with a Navigation Laser (really known as a Navigation Device) placed on pinnacle of a pole that interacts with objectives placed within  inside of the AGV operating area. The Navigation Device sends rotating laser arrays in a 360 diploma pattern.

These arrays attain numerous reflector objectives. Reflectors are reflective tapes or cylinders round 20 inch  (60 cm) excessive which might be placed in facility systems such columns, partitions, poles, etc. Reflector centre have to be placed at Navigation Device peak and a most a hundred ft (30 meters) a ways from any AGV.

Reflectors then ship the laser array sign lower back to the AGV Laser Navigation Device. LGVs have to collect at the least 3 of those array feedbacks to permit positioning calculation way to very complicated algorithms.

Depending at the AGV manufacturer, LGVs calculate and accurate their positioning among 30 and forty instances in keeping with second. These gadgets are fantastically accurate.

When is it beneficial to pick out a Vehicle with Laser-Guided Navigation?

Quick conclusion: When you want velocity and you’ve got a couple of locations and tracks. Laser-Guided Navigation is straightforward to deployment. AGV dealer will deploy all of the reflectors and simulate the AGV course at the AGV Management System to outline your wanted AGV routes.

Everything is “digital” and there aren’t any constant infrastructures such tapes at the ground or twine below the surface. In the identical corridor, you could have as many digital routes as you wish.

So, in case your challenge calls for a completely huge and complicated direction machine, it’d be green and powerful to have Laser-Navigation Vehicles.

 

Magnetic Tape Navigation AGVs

Automated guided cars are ready with magnetic sensors and observe a described tune made through a magnetic tape tune. The AGV magnetic sensor detects the magnetic area from the tape and drives the AGV following the course.

Magnetic Tape is straightforward to deployment. High-bond adhesive is used for laying the magnetic tracks. Standard dimensions are 1 mm thick and 5 cm wide, so the tape isn’t invasive at all.

The AGV control machine can illustrate to the AGVs how and in which to pressure the usage of tags (RFIDs) or magnetic signs positioned at the ground. At those predetermined positions, the AGV can determine what to do: flip left, stop, have interaction a trolley, etc.

When is it beneficial to pick out an Automated Vehicle with Magnetic Navigation?

Magnetic navigation is the number one favored method for Automatic Guided Carts (AGC). Magnetic Navigation’s accuracy lets in low-profile AGVs to have interaction trolleys from below. Magnetic Navigation is especially appropriate for nicely-described routes with out plenty of routing options.

 

Natural Navigation AGV – Free Navigation

If you want a quick guide to free Navigation AGVs, just keep on reading. There are several technologies included in what’s called “Natural Navigation”.

There are great suppliers developing and marketing new Natural Navigation Technologies. AGV Manufacturers could buy from a Navigation Technology supplier or could develop its own Navigation Technology.

The most important one is the SLAM Navigation, or Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). It simply means that an AGV with SLAM Navigation is able to map its environment and localize where it is thanks to the information received from the surrounding environment.

The AGVs are able to map the environment with different agv sensors such vision cameras, lidar sensors or even with the same lasers used for safety purposes…. all of this info is combined with internal inertial measurement unit (IMU) to define and recalculate the real AGV positioning.

All of these calculations are made by a highly complex algorithm called SLAM… So, SLAM is more of a concept than a real technology.

How do AGVs with SLAM Navigation work?

Let’s make it simple:

  • You drive the AGV manually (for example with a joystick) or automatically along the AGV route. While running, the AGV will map the surrounding environment.
  • The AGV creates a reference map that is used to navigate next time it will pass in the same place.
  • You can also load an AutoCAD (or similar) map of your premises into the AGV Management System
  • Both sets of data, the AutoCAD map and the real mapped environment are matched to define the initial coordinates (0,0).
  • Based on the combined data sets the AGV will automatically drive through the practiced route, and it will check if what it’s “seeing” is the same that was loaded on its “brain” enabling it to define its position.
  • All the data that the AGV acquires are combined with other data coming from odometrics, encoder, in order to improve accuracy.

When is it useful to choose AGVs with natural navigation?

SLAM Navigation will substitute for other kinds of navigation such magnetic navigation, optical navigation ,etc.

It’s a good solution for AGCs and Tow tractors. Many of the main AGV manufacturers are developing and including this technology on their AGVs. The main concern about Natural (SLAM, LIDAR, etc) technology is its reliability in variable environments such as production lines where there’s continuously moving of people, items, boxes, pallets, etc.

In these conditions the AGV might not be able to find where it is.

For this reason, SLAM with LiDAR is a great solution for AGVs where you have well defined profiles and environments with fixed structures such as walls and columns. Natural Navigation can be used in warehouses and hospitals… in general, in any environment with a low level of “confusion”.

 

Magnetic Spots Navigation

What is AGV magnetic spot navigation?

AGVs can navigate following small cylindrical magnetic spots embedded on the floor. Magnetic spots are commonly cylindrical magnets with dimensions close 20×10 mm (0,8×04 inch).

Magnetic spots are installed every 250-500 mm (near 15 feet) creating a virtual path. The AGVs goes from one spot to the next using sensors and controls such hall-effect sensors, encoders, counters, gyro sensor and other kinds of encoders to calibrate against steering angle errors.

AGVs follow a CAD drawing previously loaded on the AGV Management System while the magnetic spots provide a reference in accordance with the map. Positioning tolerances are relatively good achieving near 2,5 mm (1’’). This tolerance is better than tolerances obtained by other “free” navigation systems such SLAM, LiDAR, etc.

Installation is quite easy. A small hole on floor is required where the magnet is positioned. After that installation, hole is covered by epoxy resin.

What is AGV magnetic spot navigation?

AGVs can navigate following small cylindrical magnetic spots embedded on the floor. Magnetic spots are commonly cylindrical magnets with dimensions close 20×10 mm (0,8×04 inch).

Magnetic spots are installed every 250-500 mm (near 15 feet) creating a virtual path. The AGVs goes from one spot to the next using sensors and controls such hall-effect sensors, encoders, counters, gyro sensor and other kinds of encoders to calibrate against steering angle errors.

AGVs follow a CAD drawing previously loaded on the AGV Management System while the magnetic spots provide a reference in accordance with the map. Positioning tolerances are relatively good achieving near 2,5 mm (1’’). This tolerance is better than tolerances obtained by other “free” navigation systems such SLAM, LiDAR, etc.

Installation is quite easy. A small hole on floor is required where the magnet is positioned. After that installation, hole is covered by epoxy resin.

 

 

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